**APPLICATION LIMITS**

1. What is the logic limit in WinCross?

1024 characters is the limit when entering logic in a banner, filter or row.

2. What if my logic requires more than 1024
characters?

Use the **ASSIGN** statement in the Glossary to create
new variables.

3. How many rows can be displayed on a single table?

6,000.

4. What are the record/file size limits in WinCross?

Limit of 65,536 characters and 32,768 variables.

5. How many banner columns can I have?

You can have a maximum of 255 banner columns per banner.

6. What are reserved WinCross variable names?

WinCross allows for the use of variable names. However, some variable names are ineligible in that they are reserved for the exclusive use of WinCross.

Please see the WinCross help topic Reserved Key Words for full details.

**GENERAL**

1. What are the rules for rounding values in WinCross?

You can specify how you want WinCross to round percents and
statistics in **Setup|Job Settings|Rounding**.

There are two options for rounding. The first option is to round up values over 5 and round down values under 5. For rounding equal to 5, round to the nearest even number. The second option is to always round up values of 5 or more and round down values less than 5.

Rounding in WinCross is based upon three general rules:

**Rule 1** - If the remainder beyond the last digit to
be reported is less than 5, drop the last digit. Rounding to one
decimal place, the number 5.3467 becomes 5.3.

**Rule 2** - If the remainder is greater than 5,
increase the final digit by 1. The number 5.798 becomes 5.8 if
rounding to 1 digit.

**Rule 3** - To prevent rounding bias, if the remainder
is exactly 5, then round the last digit to the closest even number.
Thus the number 3.55 (rounded to 1 digit) would be 3.6 (rounding
up) and the number 6.450 would round to 6.4 (rounding down) if
rounding to 1 decimal. When the number to the left of the 5 is
even, no rounding occurs. For example, 4.225 would become 4.22.
When the number to the left of 5 is odd, rounding will occur. For
example, 4.215 would become 4.22.

*See page 12 in Hurlburt, R. (1994) Comprehending Behavioral
Statistics, Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA. *

2. How can I look up an interview respondent who
may have provided "dirty" data?

You can use the **TEST** statement in the Glossary to
search for respondents that break certain conditions.

3. How can I select specific tables to run?

Depress and hold the Ctrl key while individually clicking on those
tables you want to run, or use the **Edit Selections** option on the
**Run|Tables** dialog.

4. Why doesn't WinCross recognize my variable names?

Check these three items:

A. Your data file isnt openB. You dont have variable names in the first line of your data file

C. Your logic variables do not match your data file variables

5. What is the difference between a table
mean and row mean?

The difference between a table mean and row mean is based on the type of table youre creating. A table mean is used where every row in the calculation of the mean has only one value. If the rows represent value ranges, then the # (pound symbol) operator must be used to give the row a single value for calculations.

A row mean is appropriate when rows represent a value range
and the mean is to be calculated off the actual
distribution of data. In that event, a row is created with
the appropriate text and logic showing the value range you
want to use. In the **Row Options** dialog box
**(Setup|Tables|Row Options)** you should select the
appropriate statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation, Standard
Error, etc.).

6. When would I want to use indexing?

Please see the WinCross help topic Indexed Variables Examples for full details.

7. How can I write output to Excel?

WinCross tables can be written to Excel. When **Run|Tables|Excel
Options** is selected, WinCross creates an Excel file in addition to
the WinCross output file. You also have the option to save your
crosstab report using **File|Save|Save Report As**. Note: Saving to
Excel using **File|Save|Save Report As** produces an image of your
WinCross tables and does not contain the actual values the way the
Excel report from **Run|Tables|Excel Options** does.

Other considerations in **Run|Tables**:

Choose the directory where you want WinCross to write the Excel file(s).

8. How is weighting handled in WinCross?

WinCross has the ability to weight your crosstabs. This is done
using **Setup|Banners|Edit Banner|Weights** and must be done after
banner creation.

Weights can be created in three ways:

A. Weight variables can be part of your original data fileB. You can use glossary statements to create weighted variables

C. You can specify an actual value for a weight when you set up banners

Weights can be specified with an actual weight value, with the card/column location that holds the weight variable or the variable name for variable data. An actual weight can have up to 12 digits, can be positive or negative and can have decimal places.

9. How do I create a summary table using
SPSS data?

Mean Summary tables are easily created using the **Summary of
Means** option in **Setup|Express Tables for SPSS Data**. You
select the group of variables, choose the code value or
range of code values for the rows and WinCross creates the
table for you. The Question Title from each variable
selected becomes the row text for each row and the Code
Value(s) or range of Code Values specified becomes the row
logic.

Top/Bottom Box Summary tables can also be easily created
using the **Summary of Frequencies** option in **Setup|Express
Tables for SPSS Data**. You select the group of variables,
choose the code value or range of code values for the rows
and the code value or range of code values for the
percentaging base of each row and WinCross creates the
table for you. The Question Title from each variable
selected becomes the row text for each row and the Code
Value(s) or range of Code Values specified becomes the row
logic. WinCross automatically creates two sets of rows, one
set to be used for percentaging bases with the Hide row
(HR) option specified and the second set of rows is
automatically created with the percentaging base specified

10. How do I create a summary table using ASCII
or non-SPSS variable data?

Please see the WinCross help topic Mean Summary Tables for full details.

11. Which statistics are referred to by the term "Central Tendency?"

Mean, Median and Mode.

12. Which statistics are referred to by the term "Variability?"

Standard Deviation and Standard Error.

**STATISTICAL TESTING**

1. What are the critical values for the confidence levels used for statistical testing?

The critical values for confidence levels are contained in this Excel document.

2. When doing significance testing table lookups, what type of test does WinCross use?

WinCross significance testing is performed using two-tailed tests.

3. Although I have statistics set up to run in my
banner, they are not appearing on my tables. What am I doing wrong?

You must select Means/Percents/Chi-Square for your table statistics
(**Setup|Tables|Statistics**) as well as for your banner.

4. How is SPSS significance testing with weighted means biased?

This article details the bias inherent in SPSS significance testing with weighted means.

5. When working with weighted data, does WinCross use the weighted sample size for statistical testing?

a. WinCross uses the Effective Sample Size if replicates are not being used (the WinCross default is *not* to use replicates).

b. WinCross uses the weighted sample size if replicates are being used (SPSS uses replicates).

6. What special considerations are there for volumetric Z-test for proportions?

This topic is covered in this article.

7. What special considerations are there for the Dependent Paired/Overlap (Multi) Z-test (Part-Whole Comparisons)?

This topic is covered in this article.

8. Why dont my statistical tests appear on my tables?

There are two possible causes:

A. The option to include statistical testing has been added at the banner level, but has not been selected at the table level.

- Choose
**Setup|Tables**, then select the table to which you want to add statistical testing. Next, choose**Statistics**, followed by the preferred tests to run. This process only adds statistical testing to the selected table (as opposed to the banner).

- Another way to globally add this option to multiple tables
is to modify the table statistics. First, choose
**Setup|Globally Modify Tables|Table Statistics**. Choose Means, Percents and/or Chi-Square. Next, select the tables to apply this to (or choose**Select All**), then choose the Add to existing settings option.

B. Statistical testing has been selected at the table level but not the banner level, or there are no comparison groups in the banner.

- Make sure statistical testing has been selected at the
banner level. You cannot choose statistical testing for a banner until comparison groups have been added.

- WinCross requires that statistical testing be selected at both the table level AND the banner level.

9. How do I interpret the One-way ANOVA column indicators on my WinCross table?

One-way ANOVA tests are performed on columns of data within each specified WinCross comparison group. WinCross will assign a #1 to the first subset of data within each comparison group where no significant differences were found. Likewise, WinCross will assign a #2 to the next subset of data within the same comparison group where no significant differences were found. This process continues until all subsets of data have been examined for each comparison group.

A column of data can be a member of multiple subsets of data where no significant differences were found. In this case, you will see multiple One-way ANOVA group indicators under that column of the banner on the mean row of your WinCross report. For example, #1#2#3 under a column of data indicates this value is a member of subset 1, subset 2 and subset 3 for that comparison group.

10. Which WinCross statistical/significance test should I use?

This article gives careful treatment to this question.

11. What is the "design effect" / effective sample size in WinCross?

This article discusses how WinCross treats these subjects.

**SAMPLE BALANCING**

1. What is Sample Balancing? Is it the same as rim weighting? Are negative weights possible?

These questions are covered in this article.

**SAMPLE SIZES**

1. How do I determine sample sizes for monadic and paired comparison studies?

This question is covered in this article.

**FIELD WIDTH ERROR**

1. Why do I get a "Field width does not match code values" error?

There is a value wider than the programmed logic. For example, logic of the form **Q2 (1-99)** or **1/5:2 (1-99)**
is in use, but a value larger than 99 was encountered in the data.

**MICROSOFT SURFACE RT**

1. Does WinCross run on Microsoft Surface RT tablet computers?

WinCross is not compatible with the Microsoft Surface RT tablet, though it will run on versions of the Surface that include an option to run a genuine Windows operating system. The Surface 3 tablet is one that provides an option to run genuine Windows.

**HELPFUL DOCUMENTS**

The following documents cover various topics relating to weighted significance testing, and to part-whole comparison of means:

Weighted Data and Significance Testing Tools

Weighted Standard Error and its Impact on Significance Testing (WinCross vs. Quantum & SPSS)

Alternative Approaches to Significance Testing with Weighted Means

An Analysis of WinCross, SPSS, and Mentor Procedures for Estimating the Variance of a Weighted Mean

Part-Whole Comparison of Means